Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Development and the Environment-Environmental Factors and Human Essay

Development and the Environment-Environmental Factors and Human Activity - Essay Example This growth will be mostly seen in the urban areas of several developing countries worldwide (United Nations Population Fund, 2007). China, Indonesia, India and Brazil, whose combined populations account almost half of the world, have highly cosmopolitan centers that were rapidly changing and growing. The socio-economic as well as the political landscapes of these areas have metamorphosed over time due to the sudden proliferation of migrants from within and outside of the country (Jones & Visaria, 1997). It was hypothesized that the large inflows of migrants that precipitated the growth of urban areas were largely due to the multifaceted advantages that people think of cities (Gilbert & Gugler, 1992). The powerful presence of sophisticated infrastructures such as the health-care facilities, transportation services and communication channels, among others, which are hardly evident in rural areas, was believed to be the reason why there is a massive exodus bound for the metropolis (Bar tone, 1991; Gugler, 1988). The proximity of numerous financial institutions and academic organizations also explained these city-ward migrations (Dickenson, 1996). People who are lured by the many an opportunity in business and study relocated to the cities (Kasarda & Crenshaw, 1991). For aspiring investors, the city is a place where the promise of financial rewards abounds. Furthermore, a great deal of the population assumes that the universities and colleges in the city would not only bring them prestige but also outstanding privileges of employment. Consequently, the main rationalization of urbanization is the existence of employment opportunities in the cities (Yamazaki, 1993). Global statistics show that the swift sprouting of industries of multinational corporations in countries like Mexico and South Africa, and the cities of Dubai and Hongkong, spurred the arrival of people from the countryside or the provinces. In the Philippines, although there was a great number of out-mig rations and expatriation in the country, a significant swelling of urban cities was also reported (Stretton, 1981). A noticeable shift of the textile industries to the developing counties was documented in the in the last few decades (Fitzpatrick, 1983). Major players of the automobile industry were also focusing their manufacturing services in the Third World, as the palpable rise of car makers from the developing nations was observed (Cramer, 2005). These major transformations were derived from the proliferation of trading districts, corporate centers and tourism destinations in the Third World, where countries saw the need to gain a competitive edge by creating ‘global cities’ (Melchert, 2005). Hazards to the Urban Poor The story of urbanization is a paradox. While opportunities exist, problems also persist. As populations in urban areas grow swiftly and irrepressibly, the urbanites are confronted with a host of man-made and natural hazards. It is a wide-ranging pred icament to the urban poor: from high levels of risk due to inferior shelters and dangerous infrastructures to vulnerabilities in health-care provision, epidemics and criminality. Poverty is seen as the root of all powerlessness and the violations of the rights of the low-income citizens. Aside from this, the urban poor is faced with environmental hazards in their homes and workplaces that would lead to

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